Before taking a look at the services we offer, if you need to get an idea on the different video formats, and how each one operates, and what formats are used in different countries, please visit our Info section.


Our services


What can we do with a VHS tape?

A VHS tape can be in one of three formats: NTSC, PAL, SECAM.


NTSC: US & Canada and some other locations (check here)

PAL/ME-Secam: Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia

SECAM: Limited incompatible system originated in France, and adopted by the Eastern Communist Regimes, currently obsolete


We can do the following:


-Convert from NTSC to PAL:                   NTSC VHS >> PAL VHS

-Copy from VHS to another VHS:            Copy NTSC VHS >> NTSC VHS

                                                             Copy PAL VHS >> PAL VHS

NTSC (National Television System Committee) 

(also lovingly referred to by engineers as "Never The Same Color" owing to the system's inherent difficulty in maintaining color consistency)

The NTSC standard was introduced in the US in 1941 as the first set of standard protocols for television. It is used predominantly throughout the USA, Canada, & Japan but has also been adopted elsewhere. NTSC has 525 lines displayed at 30 frames per second in a 2:1 interleave. It has a lower resolution than PAL or SECAM but a faster frame rate, which reduces flicker. Though color stability is acceptable, broadcast of the composite signal often results in reflections and multi-path signals being received by the antenna. The result: phase distortion resulting in varying color.  Engineers lovingly defined NTSC as actually meaning "Never The Same Color".

The first broadcasts were made in 1939, transmitting 340 lines at 30 frames/sec, as demonstrated at the opening of the New York World's Fair. As there were no standards set at that time, there were a mish mash of other systems soon to be adopted - each one incompatible with the other. This was clearly going to be a format disaster if the various manufacturers were left to their own competitive devices. The FCC finally stepped in to the confused mayhem and founded the NTSC who set the standards in use today.

□ Initially adopted in 1941 and modified in 1953 to include the standards for color.
□ Additional stereo specs were adopted in 1986 and the digital  standard adopted in 1996.
□ The actual spec in use today is NTSC-M though it's just called NTSC (We have a habit of abbreviating everything)

Variations: NTSC 4.43

A variation of NTSC-M  where a 525/59.94 NTSC signal is encoded using the PAL subcarrier frequency and chroma modulation. It is NOT PAL, nor is it it encoded as PAL, but rather it is NTSC color just using PAL's subcarrier frequency. Most (but not all) multi-system Vcr's will support this mode, but only multi-standard monitors are capable of reproducing it.

PAL, PAL-N, PAL-M (Phase Alternation by Line)

Developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken Germany (German State Television) and is used in much of western Europe, Asia, throughout the Pacific and southern Africa. PAL has a higher resolution than NTSC with 625 lines, but refreshes at only 25 frames per second.

Thus, folks in the States may notice the slight flicker of a PAL video, having become used to the higher frame rate of NTSC.  However PAL offers noticeably improved resolution and color stability. After several minutes of viewing a PAL video, our brains compensate, and the flicker becomes un-noticeable.

Pal-B, G, H, I and D as far as the actual video is concerned, are all the same format. That is: they are all PAL. There is no difference. All use the 625/50 line/field rate, scan at 15,625 h-lines/sec and use a 4.433618 color subcarrier frequency. The only difference is in how the signal is modulated for broadcast.  Thus the B, G, H, I & D designate broadcast variations as opposed to any variation of the video format. PAL-I for example, has been allocated a wider bandwidth than PAL-B, necessitating that the sound carrier is placed 6Mhz above the picture instead of 5.5 MHz above the picture carrier.  Thus a PAL-I TV (the United Kingdom for example)  will get no sound if taken to the Netherlands for example (PAL-B) if all the TV's tuner is able to decode is PAL-I. (Fortunately, most European tuners support most of the broadcast variations ). 

This is why for example, you won't find a standards converter that will convert a video from PAL-B to PAL-I.  There's simply nothing to convert.....They are already the same PAL format.  There are major differences between PAL-M and PAL-N however, that would require conversion, as the line/field rate and color subcarrier frequencies are different from standard PAL


There are two variations that have been developed: PAL-M and PAL-N.  The main differences between PAL and PAL-M is a lower resolution (525 lines instead of 625) and a higher frame count (30 frames per second at 60Hz versus 25 frames per second at 50Hz). PAL-M grew out of NTSC as an attempt to correct the inherent color problems of NTSC. PAL-M is essentially PAL at NTSC line and frame rates. The only major difference is how the color is processed. ie: the sub-carrier frequency.

PAL-N is effectively PAL (identical frame/scan rate), but uses a 3.582056 MHz chroma subcarrier. PAL-N  in engineering circles is known as "Chrominance Lock Technique". Without going into a long technical dissertation on PAL subcarrier like we did with NTSC, PAL-N was simply a more sophisticated delay-line technique which could better track and cancel differential phase distortions especially encountered in remote/mountainous areas.  With subsequent improvements in tuners and filtering techniques, the reality was, that it didn't "buy" much and was never widely adopted. The only countries employing PAL-N are Argentina, Paraguay & Uruguay. Note that attempting to display a PAL signal on a PAL-N monitor will result in only a monochrome image.













Horizontal Frequency

15.625 kHz

15.625 kHz

15.625 kHz

15.625 kHz

15.750 kHz

Vertical Frequency

50 Hz

50 Hz

50 Hz

50 Hz

60 Hz

Color Sub Carrier Frequency

4.433618 MHz

4.433618 MHz

4.433618 MHz

3.582056 MHz

3.575611 MHz

Video Bandwidth

5.0 MHz

5.5 MHz

6.0 MHz

4.2 MHz

4.2 MHz

Sound Carrier

5.5 MHz

6.0 MHz

6.5 MHz

4.5 MHz

4.5 MHz

Why is PAL so stable when it comes to Color Stability ?

PAL in part, came about as a result of NTSC's weakness in the area of color stability. It circumvented NTSC's inherent problems by inverting the color phase by 180 degrees on every other line. If the color drifted off by Plus 5 degrees on line 100 for example, then on line 101 the color drifted back minus 5 deg. since the color phase reference was inverted every other line. True, the color errors were still there, but the human eye and brain are wonderfully marvelous devices....  the image processing center of our brains integrate the interleaving lines smoothly all into one coherent corrected image. The effect is that phase shifts are effectively cancelled out using our human brain as a super high speed image integrating processor.

This very trait is where PAL got it's name----  Phase Alternation by Line....  which leads us to the next world standard.

SECAM   (Sequentiel Couleur À Mémoire)

SECAM was developed in France  and is used in France and it's territories, much of Eastern Europe, Russia, the Middle East and northern Africa. This system uses the same resolution of PAL, 625 lines, and frame rate, 25 per second, but the way SECAM processes the color information is not compatible with PAL (or anything else on the planet for that matter....) 

SECAM uses an FM color subcarrier that carries the color difference signals somewhat similar to PAL. But instead of all the color difference information being transmitted all at once, in SECAM the color difference signals are transmitted sequentially ...... that is:  R-Y on one line and B-Y on the next. A delay line in the receiver provides the necessary time delay for making R-Y and B-Y available for display at the same time and thus the term "Memoire" as part of the standard's name.

SECAM was not developed for any technical reason of merit (as was PAL)  but was mainly invoked as a political statement, as well as to protect the French manufacturers from stiff foreign competition. In that regard, they were highly successful !..... 

Reminds one of the classic lines from Star Wars - The Empire Strikes Back.... Where Hans Solo is about to deliberately fly into an asteroid field to avoid the Empire's perusing Tie Fighters.......

Princess Leia:  You're not actually going IN to an asteroid field ?
Han Solo:         They'd be crazy to follow us, wouldn't they ?

Likewise, no other foreign manufacturer in their right mind had any burning desire to commit economic suicide by having to deal with and support such a limited market that was incompatible with everything else on the planet.

The Eastern Block countries during the cold war adopted variations of SECAM simply because it WAS incompatible with everything else !

If that wasn't bad enough, there are other variations of SECAM: SECAM-L (also known as French SECAM) used in France and its' now  former territories, MESECAM and SECAM-D which is used primarily in the C.I.S. and the former Eastern Block countries. Naturally, none of the three variations are compatible with even one another.   They couldn't even agree on a single incompatible standard even amongst themselves....

A Solution of Sorts

MESECAM stands for Middle East Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire..  It is a modified variant of SECAM used for recording SECAM on videotape only. This variation of SECAM is never broadcast but is just a less expensive way to record SECAM on a video tape. Thus, you'll never see MESECAM listed in any of the world standards charts, for as just stated, it is a format which is never broadcast.

So why would anyone in their right mind who is not a glutton for punishment, ever want to create a format
that is never broadcast, you're probably asking ?

Well, it all came about owing to the limited number of units of SECAM equipment manufactured. SECAM equipment; televisions in particular, are quite expensive, since the economic efficiencies of high volume mass production and competitive market forces could never be realized. PAL televisions however, are  "dirt cheap" by comparison. Europe is swimming in the things !   Short of totally scrapping SECAM, what was needed was a way for SECAM video tapes to be played back on inexpensive PAL televisions.  The answer:  MESECAM

MESECAM allows a standard SECAM signal to be slightly modified and recorded on tape that is close enough to PAL, so that SECAM programs can be played back on a standard PAL television. Thus many so called SECAM recorders aren't true SECAM recorders at all. They internally convert SECAM to MESECAM. MESECAM is the actual format written to tape.

The price that's paid for this "wonderful" cross compatibility, is that MESECAM differs from regular SECAM in how the color component is processed. SECAM uses an FM modulated subcarrier whereas MESECAM uses an AM modulated subcarrier. Naturally, the two systems as far as color is concerned are incompatible. Color recordings will only play back in black and white between SECAM and MESECAM systems. Thus an MESECAM VCR is required to play MESECAM tapes in color. They couldn't have it both ways !


In a few words most tapes out there are actually in MESECAM Format, hence can be played on PAL Vcr or can be converted to NTSC by us, to watch in Canada & US. If you are unlucky enough to have an actual Secam tape you can do one of few things:

1.Wrap it carefully in plastic, it may be a collectors item

2.Play it on a PAL VCR ( will be black and white, voice may be distorted)

3. Get yourself a Secam VCR, Secam TV and power converter

4. Find a film studio with the necessary equipment to convert it.


The above info was obtained from : http://www.videointerchange.com/pal_secam_conversions.htm


What can we do with a DVD disc?


A DVD disc can first have video in either PAL or NTSC. Most DVD players play both Pal and Ntsc without trouble whether in Europe or North America. Unfortunately some of the brand name high end players (Sony, Pioneer) have trouble playing Pal discs. Secondly a DVD disc has region code 1-8. In order for it to play on your DVD player the region code of the disc and Player must correspond unless your DVD player is MultiRegion. (Most burned DVD-R are coded as region 0, Nero burning software does this, check with the company that has provided your burning software for more details)


1: U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories
2: Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt)
3: Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)
4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean
5: Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia
6: China
7: Reserved
8: Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.)

0: Multiregion (Sometimes a DVD has no region code imprint at all, hence being MultiRegion)



What can we do:


All DVDs we make are MultiRegion DVDs


-Make a DVD MultiRegion without changing its NTSC or PAL video: Copy DVD DISC >> MultiRegion DVD Disc (Same Colour System)

-Change an NTSC DVD to PAL or vice versa (* this requires that the video is extracted from the DVD and converted completely, hence any menus in the original DVD will not be on the converted copy, we will add our custom made menus to the disc): Region 1-8 PAL DVD >> NTSC MultiRegion DVD

                                                                                                         Region 1-8 NTSC DVD >> PAL MultiRegion DVD

-Copy a DVD into VHS: Any DVD >> NTSC VHS

                                   ANY DVD >> PAL VHS



Digitize Your Movies


If you have VHS tapes we can also convert the analog video to digital and have your favorite movies, family films or videos put into a DVD Disc.


You can choose from one of these options:

NTSC VHS >> NTSC MultiRegion DVD

NTSC VHS >> PAL MultiRegion DVD

PAL VHS >> NTSC MultiRegion DVD

PAL VHS >> PAL MultiRegion DVD


DVD Sizes

The DVD sizes can be a bit confusing. There are basicly 4 different DVD Sizes:

DVD-5, holds around 4 700 000 000 bytes and that is 4.37 GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes. DVD+R/DVD+RW and DVD-R/DVD-RW supports this format. Also called Single Sided Single Layered. This is the most common DVD Media, often called 4.7 GB Media.

*This is the discs we use

DVD-9, holds around 8 540 000 000 bytes and that is 7.95 computer GB. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Single Sided Dual Layered. This media is called DVD-R9, DVD-R DL, DVD+R9, DVD+R DL or 8.5 GB Media.

, holds around 9 400 000 000 bytes and that is 8.75 computer GB. DVD+R/DVD+RW and DVD-R/DVD-RW supports this format. Also called Double Sided Single Layered.

, holds around 17 080 000 000 bytes and that is 15.9 computer GB. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Double Sided Dual Layered.

* *In the computer world is 1 KB data = 1024 bytes so 4 700 000 000 bytes / 1024 = 4 589 843KB / 1024 = 4482MB / 1024 = 4.37GB.



8mm/Hi8/Di8 tapes


Currently we can only convert 8mm tapes recorded with a North American NTSC camcorder.


What Can We Do:


-Convert 8mm tape to VHS:  NTSC 8mm/Hi8/Di8 >> PAL VHS

                                          NTSC 8mm/Hi8/Di8 >> NTSC VHS       

-Convert 8mm tape to DVD: NTSC 8mm/Hi8/Di8 >> PAL MultiRegion DVD

                        NTSC 8mm/Hi8/Di8 >> NTSC MultiRegion DVD


How to Order:

  1. Go to our Order section.

  2. Choose the format of your original copy.

  3. Select the length of the tape you are converting:

    • Minimum time is 1hr

    • If your video is less than or equal to 30 min past the hour round down (eg. for 1:30 and under, only order 1 hour, )

    • If your video is more than or equal to 31 min past the hour round up (eg. for 3:31 and higher order 4 hours)

  4. Chose the type of conversion in General

    • VHS--VHS

    • VHS--DVD

    • DVD--VHS

    • 8mm--VHS

    • 8mm--DVD

    • DVD--DVD changing form Pal to NTSC

    • DVD--DVD only changing to MultiRegion Disc

  5. Choose the specific conversion type you desire

  6. Choose the quantity of blank tapes/DVDs you need.

  7. Choose method by which we will receive your media:

    • If you live in Toronto, we can pick up if the area is serviced by TTC (pick up at your home or another location) for a small fee.

    • You can drop your media off at St. Clair Ave W and Oakwood Ave at no charge

    • You can also ship the item to us (at your own expense)

  8. Choose method by which you want to receive your original and converted media back (Returning):

    • In Toronto areas serviced by TTC we can drop off for a fee.

    • You can pick up your media  at St. Clair Ave W and Oakwood Ave  for free

    • We can ship the item to you (charges differ for within Ontario & Rest of Canada, and in the US).

  9. Select a Reason for Converting (just to give us an idea on how to best serve you)

  10. Click Add to Cart & Show Costs


Checking out:

  • After pressing the submit button a new page will pop up (the shopping cart)

  • If you have pop up blockers please ensure that these are not blocking the page from opening.

  • If you closed the page use the Show Cart Contents button to see your cart

  • If you need to erase items, enter "0" for quantity and click Recalculate.

  • Make sure 10 items appear in your cart  (some of them may have a charge of $0, that's okay)

  • Choose Shipping Options:

    • If you chose to have us dropoff your order, or you will pickup yourself (you can pick up your media  at St. Clair Ave W and Oakwood Ave  for free ) choose Toronto Pickup/Dropoff

    • If you chose for us to ship the item back to you chose whether you reside in Ontario, elsewhere in Canada, US, or International, then click Recalculate and the shipping charges for that location will appear

  • Use any coupon/voucher codes you may have

  • Enter a note or comment, then click Submit.

  • Fill out the required address information with your correct address and your phone number.


Payment methods:






PayPal—Online service to make fast, easy, and secure payments for your eBay and other online purchases!
 Visa Mastercard Discover American Express eCheck


  • Choose this and use your current PayPal account to pay either with account funds, your registered debit card or credit card. A confirmed PayPal Account is preferred.

2-Credit Card:

  • Also choose PayPal if you do not have a PayPal account, but want to pay with a credit card (Visa/MasterCard/American Express- careful as Paypal charges AMEX in US funds only, so if you have a Canadian AMEX, you probably would want to use a Visa or MasterCard instead).

Depending on which checkout screen you are presented with,  simply choose I don't have an Account, or Secure Checkout, then proceed to pay directly by Credit Card.















Sign up for PayPal and start accepting credit card payments instantly.





3-Cash/Money Order/Cheque:


  • Cash is only available for pick up/drop off orders within the Toronto area served by TTC

  • Money orders and cheques (personal cheques are fine) must be from a Canadian Institution only.

  • If you are a US resident you may need to provide  an International Postal Money order (more information about this will be communicated to you upon submitting an order).

  • Personal Cheques and Money Orders may require at least 3-7 days to clear.


  • Contact us before buying for a list of options associated with this method




5-Email Money Transfer from a Canadian Institution





If you require more info on our services or policies check the FAQ section, the online Blogger system, or our Terms and Services (you must agree to these before completing a purchase.), or feel free to contact us.



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